Most ingredients in Gabatrol have a GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) rating as determined by the Food and Drug Administration.
Phenyl-GABA is a more potent form of GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid). GABA is an amino-acid and a neurotransmitter. Only Phenyl-GABA is capable of passing the blood bran barrier in significant amounts. Phenyl-GABA is also called a nootropic or "smart nutrient" for its ability to improve neurological functions. It was discovered in Russia in the 1960's, and has since been used there to treat a wide range of ailments including anxiety, PTSD, social phobia, and insomnia. It can also be effective for emotional or ‘binge’ eating. It is safe and well tolerated having been extensively researched since the 1960’s in a variety of studies. Only Gabatrol has this new form of Phenyl-GABA!
References:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenibut | Farmakol Toksikol 1988 Jul-Aug;51(4):20-2;1990 Sep-Oct;53(5):45-7 | Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2002 Jan-Feb;65(1):77-80; 2003 Jul-Aug;66(4):21-4; 2005 May-Jun;68(3):42-5;2006 Jul-Aug;69(4):23-7 Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2005;(2):35-40.| CNS Drug Rev. 2001 Winter;7(4):471-81
Theanine can elevate mood and enhance focus and concentration. An amino acid commonly found in tea, theanine can also cross the blood-brain barrier. Theanine has unique psychoactive properties because it can affect numerous biochemical pathways. Theanine has been shown to reduce mental and physical stress, and can produce feelings of relaxation. It may also improve cognition and mood. Theanine is speculated to produce these effects by increasing the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production. Theanine also increases brain serotonin, dopamine, and has affinities for AMPA, Kainate and NMDA receptors. Theanine also promotes alpha wave production in the brain, which help people feel relaxed and positive.
References:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L-theanine | Biol Psychol. 2006 Aug 21 | Nagoya University Department of Psychology, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601, Japan | Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Sep 23 | Rogers PJ, Smith JE, Heatherley SV, Pleydell-Pearce CW. Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, 12a Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1TU, UK | Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Jul;44(7):1158-66 | Borzelleca JF, Peters D, Hall W. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; In Vivo. 2004 Jan-Feb;18(1):55-62 | Neurosci Lett. 2004 Jun 3;363(1):58-61
Tyrosine helps increase the ‘feel good’ neurotransmitters like dopamine. The effect on mood is more noticeable in humans subjected to stressful conditions. A number of studies have found tyrosine to be useful during conditions of stress, cold, fatigue, prolonged work and sleep deprivation, with reductions in stress hormone levels, reductions in stress-induced weight loss seen in animal trials, improvements in cognitive and physical performance seen in human trials. Tyrosine also helps maintain healthy levels of thyroid hormones which regulates metabolism and fat burning.
References:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L-tyrosine | J Psychopharmacol. 2005 Jan;19(1):5-11
Glycine helps to normalize electrical signals across neurons. As such it can enhance and optimize brain function.
It is a conditionally essential amino acid found abundantly in the body, particularly throughout the excitable tissues of the central nervous system, where it is thought to have a regulating influence. However, glycine is deficient in many diets and may not be sufficiently produced by the body in certain disease states. Its many functions in the body include:
1. Anti-oxidant: glycine is a cell membrane stabilizer and is known to protect against retinol toxicity and lipid peroxidation.
2. Immunostimulant: glycine increases lymphocyte viability in a dose-dependant manner. glycine also activates natural-killer cells and stimulates the release of interleukin
(IL-I) from macrophages.
3. Detoxifying agent: glycine reacts with the carboxylic acid group of toxins to form amide linkages which are excreted through the kidneys.
4. Neurologic disorders: through neuronal cell membrane stabilization glycine reduced seizures in an animal model of human epilepsy. Brain tissue samples show that over two-thirds of migraine/epileptic patients had reduced glycine levels.
5. Cardiovascular: glycine is the most abundant and important amino-acid in the heart. It stimulates cAMP activity, and is used in Japan to treat congestive heart failure (2-4 g daily), arrhythmias, duiresis and hypertension. It also lowers the cardiovascular effects of oxidative stress associated with iron-overload.
Like Glycine, taurine is an amino acid with many positive health effects. It helps to optimize brain function by stabilizing electrical signals across neurons. It also helps increase nitric oxide levels in the body, and to enhance phase II detoxification.
Recent reviews in the scientific literature have had titles like “[Taurine]– an inert amino acid comes alive” and “Taurine: a novel anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory, and cyto-protective agent.” As research into this conditionally-essential amino acid has progressed, the health impacts associated with the real limits of availability of Taurine– and the benefits of supplementation well above the levels readily available from the diet – have become increasingly clear. Taurine is emerging as a critical unsung hero of human nutrition for brain and body.
References:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taurine | Neurochem Res. 2007 Aug 31 | Department of Public Health, School of Preclinical Medicine, Chengdu Medical College, 601 Rongdu Road, Jinniu District, Chengdu, 610081, China
Sceletium tortuosum is a rare herb found in South Africa, which is also known as Kanna. The plant has been used by South African pastoralists and hunter-gatherers as a mood-altering substance from prehistoric times. It has been documented for its ability to reduce depression, increase tolerance to hunger and stress, and elevate mood for over 400 years.
It has also been used as an appetite suppressant by shepherds walking long distances in arid areas. In intoxicating doses it can cause euphoria, initially with stimulation and later with sedation. Users also report increased personal insight, interpersonal ease and a meditative, grounded feeling without any perceptual dulling. Others have noted enhanced tactile and sexual response.
Bioperine's enhances the bioavailibility of the ingredients in Gabatrol through increased absorption. In other words, by adding Bioperine, Gabatrol is more effeciently absorbed and utilized in the body.